The poems of ancient Tamil are one of India's most important contributions to world literature. Presented here in English translation is a selection of roughly three hundred poems from five of the earliest poetic anthologies of classical Tamil literature. These lyrical poems are intimately related to the agricultural society that. The whole process will just take a few moments.

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The poems of ancient Tamil are one of India's most important contributions to world literature. Presented here in English translation is a selection of roughly three hundred poems from five of the earliest poetic anthologies of classical Tamil literature. These lyrical poems are intimately related to the agricultural society that. The whole process will just take a few moments. It is a treatise on kingship: what a king should be, how he should act, how he should treat his subjects and how he should show his generosity.

The Sangam Collection is classified into and and each classification has eighteen collections, as an anthology of, belonging to the.

The Purananuru is one of the eight books in the secular anthology of. The secular anthology is entirely unique in, which are nearly all religious texts during this era. The Purananuru contains poems of varying lengths in the akaval meter. More than poets wrote the poems. It is not known when or who collected these poems into these anthologies. The Purananuru is a source of information on the political and social history of prehistoric. There is information on the various rulers who ruled the Tamil country before and during the Sangam era.

See also: Each Purananuru poem has a colophon attached to it giving the authorship and subject matter of the poem, the name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found. It is from these colophons and rarely from the texts of the poems themselves, that we gather the names of many kings and chieftains and the poets and poetesses patronised by them.

The task of reducing these names to an ordered scheme in which the different generations of contemporaries can be marked off one another has not been easy. To add to the confusions, some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents.

A careful study of the synchronisation between the kings, chieftains and the poets suggested by these colophons indicates that this body of literature reflect occurrences within a period of four or five continuous generations at the most, a period of or years.

Although there have been attempts at dating the poems of Purananuru based on the mention of the Mahabharata war, a more reliable source for the period of these poems is based on the mentions one finds on the foreign trade and presence of Greek and Roman merchants in the port of poem , which give us a date of between BCE to CE for the period of these poems.

This is further strengthened by the mention of in poem and a reference to in poem Publishing in modern times. A palm leaf manuscript with ancient Tamil text CE resurrected the first three epics and Sangam literature from the appalling neglect and wanton destruction of centuries. He reprinted the literature present in the palm leaf form to paper books.

Ramaswami Mudaliar, a Tamil scholar, first gave him the palm leaves of Civaka Cintamani to study. Being the first time, Swaminatha Iyer had to face many difficulties in terms of interpreting, finding the missing leaves, textual errors and unfamiliar terms.

He went on tiring journeys to remote villages in search of the missing manuscripts. Along with the text, he added abundant commentary and explanatory notes of terms, textual variations and approaches to explaining the context.

When grieved, we patient suffer; for, we deem This much-praised life of ours a fragile raft Borne down the waters of some mountain stream That o'er huge boulders roaring seeks the plain Tho' storms with lightning's flash from darkened skies. Descend, the raft goes on as fates ordain. Thus have we seen in visions of the wise! We marvel not at the greatness of the great; Still less despise we men of low estate. The tender sadness still returns!

In sport I moulded shapes of river sand, plucked flowers to wreathe around the mimic forms: in the cool tank I bathed, hand linked in hand, with little maidens, dancing as they danced! A band of innocents, we knew no guile. I plunged beneath th' o'erspreading myrtle's shade, where trees that wafted fragrance lined the shore; then I climbed the branch that overhung the stream while those upon the bank stood wondering; I threw the waters round, and headlong plunged dived deep beneath the stream, and rose, my hands filled with the sand that lay beneath!

Such was my youth unlesson'd. Those days of youth, ah! Whither have they fled? I now with trembling hands, grasping my staff, panting for breath, gasp few and feeble words. Kamil Zvelebil in Tamil Culture - Vol. They consist of two thousand three hundred and seventy-one poems varying from small stanzas of three lines in Ainkurunuru to stanzas of forty lines in Purananuru. There are four hundred and seventy poets known either by their proper names or by causal names called from their works.

The authors are unidentified in the case of a hundred stanzas. The poets belonged to different parts of Tamilnad and to different professions. Some of them were very popular like Kapilar, Nakkirar and and some others are rarely remembered by their names. Yet a general harmony prevails throughout these eight anthologies. The tone and temper of the age is reflected in all their poems with a singular likeness. They were moulded according to certain literary conventions or traditions that prevailed in the Sangam age.

Yet they reveal the individual genius of the poets who sang them. The poets sang either of Akam or Puram. Akam dealt with ideal love and Puram with the rest, viz. War, munificence, etc. Six of them are in 'akaval' metre which is a kind of blank verse, interspersed with alliterations and rhymes. The poems on Akam as well as Puram theme are written in this metre and its regulated and subtle music adds to the poetic beauty.

This metre is a simple but wonderful instrument which causes no impediment to the freedom of expression of the poet. In has been found to be an appropriate and natural medium for the expression of the valuable experience of the poets. The poems of Kalittokai are in Kali metre which is well known for its dramatic and lyrical qualities and which, according to Tolkappiyanar, is well suited to express the emotions of the lovers.

There is repetition of certain lines and phrases and this, added to the haunting music of the metre, is very appealing. Paripatal is a metre full of rhythm and music and the anthology known by this name consists of songs composed in this metre. There are religious poems as well as those on love-themes. The love-theme is worked against the background of bathing festivities. These songs were sung in different tunes as is evident from the notes on the music at the end of these.

The names of the musicians who set tunes to these songs are also mentioned therein. The story of love is never conceived as a continuous whole. A particular moment of love is captured and described in each poem as the speech of the hero or the lady-companion or somebody else.

There are one thousand, eight hundred and fifty poems of this type in five anthologies, viz. Akananuru, Narrinai, Kuruntokai, Ainkurunuru, and Kalittokai. One may expect a sort of monotonous repetition in these hundreds of poems on more or less the same aspects of ideal love.

This is what one finds in all the Indian arts, sculpture or iconography or music. But when looked at carefully, the individual genius of the poet is revealed through his contribution.

He gives something which is already familiar to the readers, something which assures them of a continuity of the past art, but he gives it with his fine colourings distinguished by his own rich experience and imagination.

And thus instead of monotony we feel a surprise that so many variations of the same theme should be possible. Kurinci-tinai or the clandestine union of the lovers is characteristic of the mountainous region; mullai-tinai or the life at home spent in expectation of the return of the hero is set with the background of the forest region; maruta-tinai or the sulky life has the agricultural tract as its background; neytal-tinai or the life of despair is characteristic of the sea coast; palai-tinai or the life of desolation in separation is depicted in arid tract.

Audiobook Torrent English Vocabulary.


Read the ancient Tamil poem that Nirmala Sitharaman quoted on tax policy

She narrated the poem in Tamil first before explaining its meaning in English. But what if the elephant itself walks into the field to eat? It would eat much lesser than it would trample with its foot. The poem dates between the first century BC to the third century AD. If an elephant is fed with rice harvested from the fields, even a small strip of land will feed him for days.


Purananuru, Puṟanāṉūṟu, Puṟanānūṟu: 2 definitions

The collected poems were composed by poets, of which 14 are anonymous and at least 10 were poetess. The Purananuru anthology is diverse. Of its poems, praise 43 kings — 18 from the Chera dynasty present day Kerala , 13 Chola dynasty kings, and 12 Early Pandyan dynasty kings. These panegyric poems recite their heroic deeds, as well as another poems that recite deeds of anonymous heroes likely of older Tamil oral tradition. The Purananuru is the most important Tamil corpus of Sangam era courtly poems, [7] and it has been a source of information on the political and social history of ancient Tamil Nadu.





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