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Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Analyzing nitrogen concentration using carrier illumination CI technology for DPN ultra- thin gate oxide. Nitrogen concentration in the gate oxide plays a key role for 90 nm and below ULSI technology. This paper describes the application of the carrier illuminationTM CI technique to measure the nitrogen concentration in ultra- thin gate oxides. A set of ultra- thin gate oxide wafers with different DPN decoupled plasma nitridation treatment conditions were measured using the CI technique.

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Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Analyzing nitrogen concentration using carrier illumination CI technology for DPN ultra- thin gate oxide. Nitrogen concentration in the gate oxide plays a key role for 90 nm and below ULSI technology.

This paper describes the application of the carrier illuminationTM CI technique to measure the nitrogen concentration in ultra- thin gate oxides. A set of ultra- thin gate oxide wafers with different DPN decoupled plasma nitridation treatment conditions were measured using the CI technique. Therefore, the articles were analyzed according to their content and format based on an analytical tool proposed by Kawamura and colleagues.

The results indicate that this magazine offers a reasonable collection of articles related to chemistry with a variety of contents and approaches. During the last decade in Portugal the curricula had undergone several changes, especially towards assessment. In this new curricula competences development is valued in different domains, such as knowledge substantive, procedural and epistemological, communication, reasoning and attitudinal. In this context, we seek to characterise teachers' assessment practices.

This study involves three beginning teachers of chemistry and physics. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews, observations of lessons and documents supplied by the participants.

All of the teachers demonstrate difficulties in assessment of attitudinal and procedural competences. Only one of the participants elaborates observation with registration to assess these competences. The tests constitute the main assessment instrument in the teachers' lessons, what is coherent with a teaching and learning perspective that still remains traditional. CI Implementation. There are a number of tools available for organizations wishing to measure and subsequently develop Continuous Improvement CI.

In this article, we review and evaluate a well-accepted CI development model, namely the CI Maturity Model Bessant and Caffyn, , against data collected from the 2nd Continuous Improvement Network Survey and a number of empirical cases described in the literature.

While the CI Maturity Model suggests that CI maturation ought to be a linear process, the findings in this article suggest that there are feasible alternatives for companies to develop CI capability A new mechanical characterization method for thin film microactuators and its application to NiTi Ci shape memory alloy. In an effort to develop a more full characterization tool of shape memory alloys, a new technique is presented for the mechanical characterization of microactuators and applied to SMA thin films.

A test instrument was designed to utilize a spring-loaded transducer in measuring displacements with resolution of 1. Employing an out-of-plane loading method for freestanding SMA thin films, strain resolution of 30 mu epsilon and stress resolution of 2. This new testing method is presented against previous SMA characterization methods for purposes of comparison. Four mm long, 2 micro m thick NiTiCu ligaments suspended across open windows were bulk micromachined for use in the out-of-plane stress and strain measurements.

The fabrication process used to micromachine the ligaments is presented step-by-step, alongside methods of fabrication that failed to produce testable ligaments. In terms of recoverable stress and recoverable strain, the ligaments achieved maximum recovery of MPa and 3. No permanent deformations were seen in any ligament during deflection measurements. Maximum actuation forces and displacements produced by the 4 mm ligaments situated on 1 cm square test chips were 56 mN and micro m, respectively.

Fatigue analysis of the ligaments showed degradation in recoverable strain from 0. Unexpected phenomena like stress-induced martensitic twinning that leads to less recoverable stress and the shape memory behavior of long life devices are addressed. Finally, a model for design of microactuators using shape memory.

CERN Multimedia. The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations at Geneva recalls that only the spouses and children of members of personnel resident in Switzerland and in possession of a legitimation card of types 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are entitled to benefit from a Ci Permit.

Ukaegbe, CI. ISSN: A contagem dos frutos foi realizada previamente aos tratamentos em 2 ramos marcados por planta. Alternate bearing is an important caracteristic of some mandarins that reduces fruit quality and yield in tangor Murcott, and to reduce this effect is necessary to perform fruit thinning to avoid high and low production year by year.

To evaluate the effects of plant growth regulators on fruit thinning of the 'honey' orange, an auxin NAA-naphthalene acetic acid and ethephon ethylene, were applied 40 days after full bloom in an experiment carried out at Pratania, S. Five-year-old plants grafted on Rangpur. The paper is based on a study of the laboratory work of undergraduate chemistry students during the time they were involved in undergraduate research projects. The aim of the study was to gain insight into what students learn about the nature of science from this approach to science instruction.

A metodologia envolveu atividades como entrevistas individuais e encontros com os professores. This work aimed to investigate how a formative process can contribute to provide new meaning for chemistry teachers' conceptions about Science, Technology, Society and relationships among them, considering these conceptions are important to implement STS approaches for science teaching.

Three teachers of chemistry from different public and private schools were involved in this research. Individual interviews were performed with teachers e their conceptions also were analysed from discussions in a workshop. Data analysis revealed some teachers' conceptions seem not be compatible with those required for STS approach, and showed that is crucial to involve teachers in discussions about their conceptions. For this, workshops were performed and discussions pointed out a tendency for construction of new ideas by teachers, highlighting the importance of previous formative process for STS.

Five Ethephon concentrations were applied: 0, , , and mg L-1 in two fruit development stages 30 mm and 40 mm of transverse diameter. In the first year after chemical thinning with Ethephon the productivity was evaluated in plants of different treatments. In the second year the alternate bearing and the productivity were evaluated.

Plants sprayed with mg L-1 of Ethephon produced fruit higher amounts in following year to thinning. Human Resourcing For CI. The objective of this paper is therefore to define Data collection involved interviews and observations in three longitudinal studies in five companies based in Denmark.

From these data, a list of competencies that appeared to facilitate CI implementation was compiled DC wood from thinning and primary sawing for reconstituted panel and energy production; and also to verify the efficiency of extractive removal by water treatments, in order to improve wood quality for particleboard production. Lignin, holocellulose, extractives, ash, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur contents and higher heating value were determined. Two water treatments for extractive removal were performed: immersion in cold water for 24 hours and immersion in boiling water for 2 hours.

Lower values of ash, holocellulose, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and higher contents of lignin, total extractives, hydrogen and nitrogen contents were found for wood from primary sawing residues.

For other properties, the values were significantly equal. Australian red cedar wood presents high extractive content, being water pre-treatment necessary for the production of some particleboards.

Higher heating values of materials indicate potential for energy production. Foram encontrados menores teores de cinzas, holocelulose. The CI :Marketing interface. The potential for CI to inform and influence marketing decisions is increasing and this combination can deliver an enviable competitive advantage. Simply knowing more about competitors is not enough. It is what the firm does with that information and how it weaves it into its decision making process which makes the difference.

In a large number of organisations, private or public, it is the Marketing Department which carries the responsibility for critical activities such as customer manageme A radioactive sample will be placed inside a carrier that is transported via an airflow system produced by controlled differential pressure.

Midway through the transportation process, the carrier will be stopped and vented by a powered exhaust blower which will remove radioactive gases within the transport carrier. A Geiger counter will monitor the activity of the exhaust gas to ensure that it is below acceptable levels.

If the radiation level is sufficient, the carrier will pass through the remainder of the system, pneumatically braking at the counting station. The complete design will run manually or automatically with control software. Tests were performed using an inactive carrier to determine possible transportation problems.

The system underwent many consecutive trials without failure. Este artigo aborda o primeiro tomo da Alographia dos alkalis fixos At the turn of the 19th century, Minas Gerais Botanist Friar Veloso worked intensely on the publication of books to promote among settlers from the Portuguese empire techniques for improving agricultural production and from the incipient chemistry industry.

This article analyzes the first volume of the "Alographia dos alkalis fixos Some concepts and definitions used at the time of the Chemical Revolution are discussed, considering that Veloso translated them to Portuguese and introduced them to Brazil through his work.

Study design: Retrospective cohort study. The risk was also elevated for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas, though to a lesser extent HR 1.

Conclusions: Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population.

Study design Retrospective cohort study. Conclusions Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population. Retrospective cohort study. Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population.

The thesis is divided into four main sections. The environmental aspect of energy is also explained. Section two describes the electricity market in Norway and the Nordic countries, which works as a benchma La lectura en el aula. Barcelona, ISBN: It was written by the outstanding Chinese poetess Li Qingzhao and considered to be the first theoretical treatise dedicated to genre ci.

The article revealed that the poetess used three strategies to make a genre demarcation: to legitimise, dichotomise and historicise. To legitimise means to justify that ci is a genre of poetry by identifying the same traits with official poetry shi e.

To dichotomise is to determine a core element of genre and oppose it to the other element identifying the similar genre e. To historicise is to develop or discover the unique historical past e.

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