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Alex Periscinoto Jorge Eduardo Stockler. Prado Sampaio Wladimir Murtinho. We have good reason to believe that this is the largest number of nations represented at asingle art show - one that, in the postwar period, was created to provide the art world areference situated outside the hegemonic centers.

Why transfer a part of the responsibility of the pioneering 8iennale di Venezia to acity that in those days was stilllost in the southern hemisphere and seeking its own identity? Time was to justify the entrepreneurial boldness of the exhibition's masterminding and, ultimately, ali unfavorable conditions were to become favorable. Successive waves of immigration have driven off the ghost of agrarian and provincial ruling and its oligarchic organization.

Today the Italian, Japanese, Korean Tolerance is the greatest asset of the city's population and the key for understanding the success of its international art show. Currently we are witnessing adifferent situation worldwide. Biennial art shows have been springing up in various countries.

Nowadays, the creation of biennial art shows somewhat resembles the foundation of cities - it is a mythical enterprise with asymbolic meaning that rules the destiny of those that plant its seeds. For instance, whereas Johannesburg nourishes the dream of an African integration, Kwangju seeks to promote the coexistence of art and technology.

Each of these dreams attests to the fact that human existence is an endless task. Time has consolidated its character, which is at the same time particular and universal. It is particular in that it entails the strengthening of art institutions and meets the expectations of ademanding public; it is universal in that it does away with false differences, abolishes endogeny and invigorates democratic ideaIs.

Aseasoned, long-standing biennial such as ours is aforever shining star that guides voyagers along their current and futu re paths. It is intended to transform the circle into aspiraI. This feeling spread throughout the world and was enhanced with new hues in many art centers. However, the departure from the support is only an aspect of the broader movement of dematerialization that involves not only the definition of artwork itself, but also the manner in which humankind inhabits the world at this century end.

Adefinitely clarifying impulse for this perception came from! At least in the Latin American continent, lightness corresponds to the rejection of stereotypes collected throughout the century, which caused art and politics to mix inextricably, to the point that ideological reports were issued to artists who opted between figurativism and abstraction. On occasion, arare personality on the periphery of the dispute produced a diagnosis out of keen lucidity, such as for example Antonin Amaud at the time of his visit to the New World, in He said, "ln Mexico they have resuscitated the Toltec, Aztec and Chichimec deities - quite a happy idolatry if only the feeling of this noble beauty could be revived.

Nonetheless, the true force of its appearance under a constructivist register sprang from adesire to make atabula rasa with local politicai interests. While many followers of geometric abstraction have become rigid, others have gone back to figurativism like mimes who, having lost confidence in their gestural repertoire, whisper a commentaryalong with their act.

Soto has always questioned labels and support. Back in the s, out of inspiration drawn from the Amazon jungle where he was bom, he created his Penetrables - aprofusion of nylon catheters forming aporous, sensorial and breeze-blown wall that visitors can traverse.

His pieces stitch up the air and could perfectly well supply new arguments to the tailor who sewed the emperor's new c1othes. We thank art critic Roberto Guevara for having selected this great master. Soto's Penetrables comprise lively lines, the same catheters used in blood transfusion cause an intense impact on visitors who seem to lose their bearings amidst the colorful jungle - rather like in the St.

Sophie Cathedral, in Istanbul. Soto's artistic consistency partly results from his love of music - after ali, he played the guitar in Paris to survive the Cold War years, just as Russian-bom French painter Serge Poliakoff played the balalaika in Slavic restaurants.

Art is forever indebted to this "extracurricular" activity that enabled. Soto to devote himself to research and which shielded him from market demands. There they are today, the two of them, right in the heart of the Amazon, side-by-side with pioneers of nonobjective art.

The book of US activist and art critic Lucy R. LeWitt is an artist who disregards artwork as asupport of ritualistic projections that are no different than those described by Karl Marx in chapter 4, part 1of his Capital: "The fetishist nature of the commodity is its mystical and fantastic character. This is the nature of wall drawings -Iargeformat paneIs currently produced by art students and assistants following guidelines proposed by LeWitt. At the end of the exhibition the wall is whitewashed.

Acertifica te of work completion is ali that is left. The limpidity of each of his 35 phrases closely resembles his art production and the deep silence that emanates from it. LeWitt views the canvas as astage of worship while conferring to art an inquisitive role.

Spinoza's ethics is geometrically demonstrated, as are the processional figures of wall drawings and the framework structures of underpinnings.

LeWitt has discarded art as areproductive system for artistic receptacles. Five centuries of canvas painting have led well-intentioned individuais to question this perpetuity where ritualistic element expels artistic element. Critic Clement Greenberg believed to have resolved afair portion of the problem when he placed in check the easel canvas to engage in amilitant action in favor of an all-over style of art - astyle where the overall.

LeWitt threw the discus much further into the distance as he focused exclusively on art rather than on canonical support. This stand offers to artists a sensation of plenitude as it restores to them an independence that for along time had remained repressed.

Nonetheless, he fights the tautological appeal of sticking to something rigorously contained in adefinition, of which Joseph Kosuth's Five Words Written in Neon - awork which strictly lives up to its title - is a classical example.

LeWitt says without hesitation: "Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. His work titled Einstein - the encounter of awhite billiard ball painted with ablack dot, and apin with ablack head "Mankind is adream of ashadow, " once wrote Pindar reveals the mystery of gravitation, rotation, mutual attraction, and interplay of energy and matter.

However, the experiment's title, "Image is Blind, " was not completely accurate because the hypodermic needle left aslight perforation in the ball's surface, which was enough for the public to unravel the artist's conceptual fabrication.

Caldas's world ventures down these paths - aworld in which Santos-Dumont, inventor of abox-kite airplane, the Bis, has ademiurgic function. The artist is completely mobilized by an absolute respect for the unseen; he is capable of erecting asmall podium in apark from which to contemplate the scenery. Summoned to show at an exhibition the theme of which was color in Brazilian art, he conceived ahighly instigating artwork that was rigorously calculated by architect Haron Cohen.

The artwork comprises two photographic transparencies showing anight view of Rio de Janeiro, each with ahole bored in the center, letting through a beam of white light from the slide projector. The pair of luminous retinas perforates the picture, thus attempting an improbable conjunction of observer and observed.

The same idyllic city of Rio de Janeiro that once served as back projection for Alfred Hitchcock's film Notorious, is now joined by two physical witnesses that concentrate the summation of ali the colors of the spectrum.

The politicaI activity of these incursions establishes asignificant variable, aturnaround of expectations between active and inactive militants. Waltercio Caldas does not question dictatorship; he questions power itself in the same vein as Michel Foucault.

The question is, up to what point does only vision see, or only touch feel? OVillage nova-iorquino se candidatava ainda timidamente a sucessor. Roger Chastel's prized canvas banalized the acquisitions of Braque and Picasso while supplying acertifica te of good conduct to this pictorial regime. Afantastic application of the thesis of unequal and combined development of capitalism was taking place.

Developed countries: cubismo Developing countries: either imitation of the powerful, adapting their subject matters to the flattening regime, or self-imposed restriction to being suppliers of naif art. Anyone who missed this implacable screening was ignored. Therefore, there was no great difference between this situation and the transit of academic artists of recently independent nations back to their old metropolises in search of artistic othodoxy in the 19th century.

Modem icons such as Mondrian demand an expansive museological apparatus capable of sheltering, in an extremely aseptic environment, the game of orthogonals. Everything the Dutch painter wrote on the future abolition of canvas in favor of a particularism-free environment was of no avail.

History has placed on apar levei the bylaws of neoplasticism and surrealism, which formerly were fierce opponents and which today coexist merrily under the curator's totalizing gaze. The acknowledgment of art's dematerializing power which has overthrown the despotism of canvas and pedestal, among its other effects, has attracted those countries supposedly on the fringe.

Ali those artists who have sought to reflect artwork and its surroundings, and to render installations effective, are presento Those who have refused to erect cenotaphs to honor Westem masters and their acolytes are also in attendance. Our senses of sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste are free to check artworks, while living up to the amphibology of the word "esthetics" that designates both the theory of beauty and the fluent interchange of the senses.

Agrade pela qual se sente a obra de arte atual revoluciona toda a pintura. Onovo funda sua genealogia. Though it may seem preposterous that the assertion needs to be repeated, contemporary art exhibition has aliberating purpose.

The return to painting is very much appreciated, even if in the form of large-size works. At the Bienal that focused on rupture of traditional support, aguest painter of monochromatic canvases could not understand the reasons for his being invited to the event. The grating through which the current art production is felt stirs up the entire field of painting.

For other reasons, Matisse's paintings are appreciated, Picasso's canvases are reviewed and abstract artists who were acclaimed up to afew years ago are now set aside. The new trend establishes its genealogy. The enigma - which requires feeling and understanding to reach the fulcrum of optical distortion, aprocedure that renders the viewer restless - has gloriously withstood various epochs and now inquisitively faces digital image operators.

Russian artist lIya Kabakov analyzes art history through avariety of supports - icon, fresco, canvas and installation - with which not only the artist but the entire era lives. With different rates of detachment and approximation and different phases of appropriation of the world, history generates different conditions for feeling.

Aspace that has been opened wide escapes the attempt to redesign the world within astrict two-dimensionality or to submit it to the preestablished territory of sculpture. The subject of abiennial exhibition is aimed at directing, with the strict denotation of the word "direction, " i. Ali nations are at the same levei; at times, however, those that break away from the handbooks of traditional art history have plenty to teach about the sensorial repression imposed by the politicai centers.

If biennial exhibitions intend to put their contemporaneity into. According to sharp commentators, Marx's inspiration to write the above-mentioned chapter on the fetishist nature of commodities came from London's Crystal Palace, which he visited in This work was the first avatar of installation.

The scope of biennial exhibitions is not aimed at rendering an interpretation of the sensorial world, rather at transforming it, thus heralding atruly universal policy. Mixed media installation Foto: Wayne Oosthuizen Cortesia! Courtesv Johannesburg Art Gallery. Uma abordagem. Para aqueles que podem. Previous works include Bangboek The Book that is Afraid , acryptic diary which contains priva te notes on pacifism, as aprotest against military service in the SA Defence force.

Autochonous Journey , contains African soils collected over a 10,kilometer journey. Evident in Boshoff's oevre is a systematic approach combining both adidactic quality and ahumanity passionately engaged.





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