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Some of the techniques can be done in a different way and it always depends on the situation and practical use. Information and advice stated in this booklet do not replace experience or proper training. For this reason mastering and acquisition of relevant techniques and principles of safety is your responsibility.

One of the biggest difference from semistatic ropes is the elongation elasticity that is much bigger on dynamic ropes standard fall test requires maximum 12 kN impact force for dynamic ropes. Only ropes marked EN can be used for climbing! There are 3 types of climbing ropes according to use:. Half rope Used in pair, in two independent belay lines right and left.

Suitable for mountaineering, ice climbing or multi-pitch climbing. Twin rope Used in pair led parallel in one line. Usually used when a risk of rock or ice fall occurs big wall, mountaineering, multi-pitch climbing. How to take care of rope? A rope will last the longest in a dry and dark place.

Never store the rope near chemicals. If the rope gets wet, it is necessary to always let it dry. However, do not expose the rope to direct sunlight or heat sources. Sunlight is also harmful, therefore never leave the rope in the sun longer than necessary. Its biggest enemy is dust elements or dirt.

Basic classification of climbing harnesses By the number of buckles, padding and purpose we distinguish the following categories: sport — 1 buckle, simple and light for your maximum performance universal — 3—4 buckles, allows variable adjustment according to the use bigwall — 3—4 buckles, very comfortable with a lot of gear loops skitouring — 1—3 buckles, light, could be put on even with the skis or crampons on canyoning — 3 buckles, with special sit protector.

How to take care of harness? Same as rope, protect your harness against long-lasting direct sunlight, direct heat sources and acids, lixiviants, lyes and bleaches that damage synthetic fibres. If your harness is dirty, wash it by hand with cold water and soap solution.

Dry in the dark at a temperature approx. Check your harness regularly to make sure the seams are unbroken and that the steel parts and buckles are not damaged and fully functional. How to take care of hardware and other metal climbing equipment? Always keep in mind that metal parts of the equipment are subject to corrosion, therefore allow them to dry thoroughly after use.

Fabric parts are damaged by moist, in which mould can appear. Basic classification of the carabiners according to EN is by its construction and strength requirements in different way of use.

In real conditions we choose a carabiner according to the purpose of use, material and type of locking mechanism:. For added security it is fitted with a screw- or automatic locking mechanism. Designed exclusively for connection to an EN loop express. It is not designed for belaying by munter hitch. Carabiner designed for permanent connections, e. Type 1: Ice axe for the snow and ice Previously class B. Nowadays it does not have to be marked.

Type 2: Ice axe for the snow, ice and drytooling. Ice axe, or its replaceable parts spikes are marked by the letter T in a circle. This includes most technical ice axes with replaceable spikes, regardless of whether they are suitable only for ice or are specials for dry-tooling. Crampons are usually classified according to the number of points and the type of binding as: Tourist 10—12 points, flat horizontal points, used usually for mountaineering, i. Technical 12 points, vertical mainly replaceable front points, for classical and demanding mountaineering, for climbing on hard ice, steep slopes, icy gullies, highest-difficulty mixes and climbing of frozen waterfalls, where front points are extensively used.

When making any knots, keep in mind that any knot reduces the strength of the rope depending on his kind and perfected on it construction. Due to the character of this knot it is essential to tie a backup knot, see the double fisherman's knot.

Overhand slip knot Used to fix webbing or accessory cord on partially driven pitons. It can be tied closer to the rock than clove hitch. Girth hitch Simple knot suitable to attach the sling around piton, ice screws, ice axe etc. Easier to tie than overhand slip knot. Double Bowline Used for creating two fixed loops at the rope end or for making provisory rope harness. Alpine butterfly Used for anchoring from separate points, interanchoring, tying-in on the glacier.

Never tie at the end of a rope. Munter hitch Knot used for belaying with HMS carabiner. The knot does not fix the rope, the friction only brakes sliding of the rope. It is easy to tie even with one hand or with the gloves on the hands. The part of the rope going to belayer must not go through the gate of the carabiner! Klemheist Machard knot Works very well, suitable also for flat slings, it is possible to make it also from thicker diameter slings up to 9 mm.

French prusik Easy manipulation, it is possible to make it with one hand only, suitable also for flat slings. Prusik knot Simple and the easiest friction knot.

It works in both directions. Normally made from accessory cords mm diameter. It is possible to make it with one hand only. Ideal for connection of two ropes or slings of a different type or diameter. Overhand follow through Used to join two ropes or slings together. Easy to tie.

When loaded it is hard to untie. Overhand knot It is simple knot and can be done with one hand only even with the gloves on. The best knot to join two ropes for rappelling.

In pulling the ropes, the flat side of the knot slides on the surface and significantly lowers the possibility of jamming. Do not use this knot with ropes of varying diameters! Without proper understanding of knotting techniques and their practical mastery, use of knots is dangerous and may lead to serious accidents or death!

Make the loop and put it through the buckle frame. How to put on the harness Waist belt should be above the hips and comfortably tightened. Tying in Recommended tying in to a sit harness with figureeight knot. Figure-eight knot is easily recognizable and can be easily checked visually.

Tying-in on belay loop. Belay loop has enough strength to tie-in but tying-in is only allowed if it is recommended by the producer. This we can easily find in the instructions of use. Recommended tying in to a combination of sit and chest harness.

Partner check eliminates possible errors before you start climbing. Learn to perform partner check before every climb and you will prevent accidental injury.. Climbers will check on each other: Locked sit harness Correct tying-in knot Belay device placing the rope in the belay device Placing the carabiner into the belay loop and screwing of the carabiner locking mechanism Stop Knot at the end of rope against slip or to tie the climbing partner Sufficient amount and division of material.

The human body can survive the load 15x higher than its weight. Practically it means a value of approximately 12 kN. The value of impact force of all dynamic ropes therefore has to be lower than 12 kN. Active length of rope means the length of rope between the belayer and the climber. Using standard belaying methods and standard climbing belay system belayer, rope, protection… the fall factor can get the values from 0 to 2. The higher the fall factor the higher impact force generated while arresting a fall.

The described two forces are acting on the last protection point at the moment of breaking the fall, which means the last protection point takes effect of 1,6x higher force comparing to force acting to fallen climber. Do not stay in the fall area, neither on the ground nor on the rock. Always one hand holds the rope below the belay device.

Before you start to climb, coil the rope to avoid the knots and twisting of the rope. The upper end of the rope is for leader. Methodology of climbing The climber uses his legs to the maximum extent possible to lift the weight of the body. It is known that legs can develop 4x greater strength than arms maximum. Upward movement should be smooth and natural.

Climbers-beginners should avoid extreme positions of joints and always choose a natural variant of advancing. Chimney climbing Chimney climbing can be used in narrow chimneys where the back forms one support part and the other one is provided by the back pressure of one of both legs.

Upward movement is based on arms in combination with a leg leaned against the wall and a simultaneous push upwards. Climbing technique in overhang In overhang sections, the climber pushes his hips to the rock as hard as possible, which at least partially relieves the overloaded upper limbs.

Traverse When climbing in a traverse, we move the centre of gravity of the body from one point to another in horizontal position. Coil the rope from its middle to the ends. Grip the rope in your hand and subsequently put loops of the rope into your second hand use full extent of your arms.


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