Jump to navigation. The drought is part of a four-month-long experiment known as Water, Atmosphere and Life Dynamics. Biosphere 2 has closed the rain forest to the public for the duration of the research, but visitors are still invited to explore other biomes under the glass. This is helpful for testing models to predict what happens with global tropical forests under climate change.
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IEEA will be published in the Congress proceedings. The event will be the most significant meetingpoint for business and knowledge exchange in theRegion of South-East Europe. The world population will increase to ten billion people by the year By that time we will have exhausted all of the 7 trillion barrels of oil, equivalent to any kind of economically recoverable fossil fuel on earth.
We will have run out of places to store the toxic wastes from our nuclear fission reactors. We will have no alternative resource but fusion energy.
The physics of present fusion energy, involving the fusion of deuterium and tritium in a thermonuclear reactor, the TOKAMAK, is approaching resolution but problems of reactor materials survival remain, which will probably take 30 years to work out. This is due to the very destructive neutrons generated in the reaction process. In contrast, helium-3 is a completely clean source of energy.
Two helium-3 atoms are fused in a thermonuclear reactor to produce normal helium and energy. The fuel is non-radioactive, the process produces no radioactivity, and the residue produces no radioactivity.
It is the perfect energy source. It will probably take 10 to 20 years to work out the physics of containing the reaction. There is very little helium-3 on earth, only that which was left here when the earth was formed, and some additional amount which we have made in our reactors since then. It is generated from nuclear reactions in the sun and comes to us on solar wind. None lands on earth because it is diverted away by the earth's magnetic field. But is does land on the moon.
The moon is loaded with it. It is estimated that there is ten times as much helium-3 energy on the moon as our total historical inventory of fossil fuels. But to mine it on the moon and to get it here we will need a space station by AD and a permanent human resident colony on the moon by AD. The by-products of processing ore on the moon will provide enough necessary materials like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, etc.
Although no one can clearly gauge what will happen next in our oil-driven global energy economy, the recent political destabilization in Egypt and Libya collectively poses a troubling antecedent to economic turmoil due to interruption in oil supplies. Wind power emerges as a clear winner in terms of its overall impact on the environment and human health according to a recent study of the European Union: Environment Directorates General DG.
The study assessed energy technologies not only for their ability to deliver energy, but also for overall performance in eleven different weighted categories, the most heavily weighted categories being CO2 emissions, mortality, resource abundance, footprint land area required and water consumption.
In addition to solutions designed to meet general energy needs, the study also considered twelve different combinations of energy sources and vehicles to meet transport needs. According to the results, wind, whether being used to power battery-electric or hydrogen fuel cell cars, offers the best all round solution. In theory, all road vehicles in the US could be powered by less than , 5 million watt MW wind turbines, resulting in dramatic reductions of up to a third in carbon emissions, as well as vehicle related air pollution deaths.
In addition, well-informed grid planning and highly interconnected transmission systems could help avoid disruptions. Implementing the necessary changes will require cooperation at multiple levels of government. Nuclear power performed badly in the study, ranking alongside coal combined with CCS in all the heavily weighted categories. But biofuels performed even worse — ethanol has a large land footprint and therefore reduces the land available for food crops, thus increasing mortality due to soaring food prices.
Long term temperature data from the Southern Hemisphere are hard to find, and by the time you get to the Antarctic continent, the data are extremely sparse. Nonetheless, some patterns do emerge from the limited data available.
The Antarctic Peninsula, site of the now-defunct Larsen-B ice shelf, has warmed substantially. On the other hand, the A rise in the global mean temperature does not imply universal warming. Dynamical effects changes in the winds and ocean circulation can have just as large an impact, locally as the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. The temperature change in any particular region will in fact be a combination of radiation-related changes through greenhouse gases, aerosols, ozone and the like and dynamical effects.
Since the winds tend to only move heat from one place to another, their impact will tend to cancel out in the global mean. Bertler et al. At present, it is not possible to say what the long term change over the entire last century or more has been. The lesson here is that changes observed over very short time intervals do not provide a reliable picture of how the climate is changing. Furthermore, there are actually good reasons to expect the overall rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere to be small.
It has been recognized for some time that model simulations result in much greater warming in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the South, due to ocean heat uptake by the Southern Ocean.
Additionally, there is some observational evidence that atmospheric dynamical changes may explain the recent cooling over parts of Antarctica. Thompson and Solomon showed that the Southern Annular Mode a pattern of variability that affects the westerly winds around Antarctica had been in a more positive phase stronger winds in recent years, and that this acts as a barrier, preventing warmer air from reaching the continent.
There are also some indications from models that this may have been caused by a combination of stratospheric ozone depletion and stratospheric cooling due to CO2 Gillett and Thompson, ; Shindell and Schmidt, It is important to note, though, that there is evidence from tree-ring based climate reconstructions that the phase of the Southern Annular Mode has changed similarly in the past Jones and Widman, We cannot, therefore, ascribe observed recent temperature changes to any one particular cause.
So what does this all of this imply? First, short term observations should be interpreted with caution: we need more data from the Antarctic, over longer time periods, to say with certainly what the long term trend is. Second, regional change is not the same as global mean change. Third, there are very reasonable explanations for the recent observed cooling, that have been recognized for some time from model simulations.
However, the models also suggest that, as we go forward in time, the relative importance of increasing radiative effects, compared with atmosphere and ocean dynamic effects, is likely to increase. In short, we fully expect Antarctica to warm up in the future. Fossile Kraftstoffe sind endlich. Diese simple und gleichzeitig bedrohende Botschaft kennen wir bereits seit Jahrzehnten. Doch die Automobilindustrie reagiert nur schleppend, alternative Die Autoindustrie experimentiert zur Zeit But if we want to get there by AD, we will have to start now!
Antarctic cooling, global warming? Auf dem Weg in eine saubere Zukunft.
Biosphere 2 Rain Forest Closed During Drought Experiment