Physicochemical characterization of a tilapia brackish effluent in aquaponics. Aceptado: enero de En contraste tanto en acuaponia como en siembra tradicional la Mentha X verticillata L. The objectives of the study were; to characterize physicochemically a tilapia brackish effluent in commercial production and evaluate the growth of three types of herbaceous plants in aquaponic. The experimental design was completely randomized. The ranges found in the parameters were: water temperature

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Pedro J. Albertos-Alpuche 1. Lidia E. Robaina-Robaina 3. Juan de Quesada, 30, Almada, km 1. Aquaponics can be defined as the integration of hydroponic plant production in a recirculating aquaculture system and has been proposed as a sustainable method to control the accumulation of waste produced by fish farming.

The objective of the present study was to determine the biomass production and its feed potential of Myriophyllum aquaticum, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna minor and Salvinia molesta grown in aquaponics. To evaluate the chemical compositions of these species, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, ash, ether extract, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus of the aquatic plants were determined.

Based on the results of this study, aquatic plants are considered to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of productive animal species. Therefore, it is feasible to use them as the main ingredient in whole animal rations, with an emphasis on Myriophyllum aquaticum and Lemna minor as alternative food sources for different animal species, opening the way to aquaponic fodder production.

Aquatic plants are interesting alternative, unconventional feed sources, especially because their high growth rates and nutritional qualities make it feasible to use them for animal consumption. However, Salvinia molesta has no value as fodder, especially because of its lignin concentration, which could affect the fodder digestibility.

Aquatic plants are interesting alternatives to conventional food sources, especially because of their accelerated growth and nutritional quality Leterme et al. Several studies have been conducted to determine the value of different non-conventional forage resources from the nutritional point of view, both for fish and for terrestrial animals Patra et al.

Considering distribution, hydrophytes are found almost everywhere Lowe et al. Belonging to a group classified as weeds, several species have potential forage uses, especially parrotfeather Myriophyllum aquaticum , which is widely used as ornaments in aquariums and presents considerably rapid growth Crow Another aquatic plant is Amazon frogbit Limnobium laevigatum , which is typified by accelerated growth and invasiveness and is considered a pest in many countries San Martin and Boetscher Additionally, duckweed Lemna minor is a small aquatic plant that must be submerged to flower and is an almost cosmopolitan species; duckweed grows quickly and efficiently, as it is able to take advantage of residual waste for its growth Reyes et al.

Finally, aquatic fern Salvinia molesta , which has been listed as an invasive plant due to its adaptability and fast reproduction, is able to grow at high speed blocking necessary sunlight from other aquatic plants, especially the algae necessary to oxygenate water Lowe et al.

Aquaculture waste can be used as a source of nutrients for plant growth in hydroponic systems, so it is possible to incorporate hydroponics into aquaculture.

In this sense, aquaponics, defined as the integration of hydroponic plant production in a recirculating aquaculture system, has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control the accumulation of waste produced by fish farming Rakocy In general, aquaponics is a production system in which wastes synthesized by aquatic organisms usually fish are converted via bacterial action into nitrates, which serve as a source of nitrogen for plants.

The principle of aquaponics is based on the fact that the nutrients required for the growth and development of plant cells are very similar to the wastes that fish produce and release into the water. Plants are part of the biological filters of aquaponic systems and take the nutrients they need, such as nitrates, from the water, thus cleaning the water that returns to the fish tank Espinosa et al.

Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the biomass production of the aquaponic species Myriophyllum aquaticum, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna minor and Salvinia molesta and their potential for feeding animals. A completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment was used one species per aquaponics system, each system with three hydroponics beds, HB.

Aquaponics systems were equal and independent, each consisting of a pond 1. Physicochemical parameters during the study were pH 7. The hydraulic retention time in the HB was 60 minutes, with a constant flow. A total of specimens of Oreochromis aureus were planted with an average weight of 6. The aquatic plants parrotfeather Myriophyllum aquaticum , Amazon frogbit Limnobium laevigatum , duckweed Lemna minor and aquatic fern Salvinia molesta were obtained from the aquatic plant collection of LabAc-UG.

A total of g of vegetable biomass on a wet basis were planted in each HB. The plants were allowed to drain for 30 min in a net in the shade to remove excess water before the amount required for each species was weighed.

The experiment lasted for 21 d, and at the end of the experiment, the plants were removed from each HB, the excess water was withdrawn and the biomass production per species was quantified g m Subsequently, the plant material was placed on a plastic tray one tray per HB , and the biomass was divided into four portions per tray.

The samples were weighed and dried in an oven at 60 o C to constant weight to determine the dry matter DM. Square root transformation of the sine-arc was applied to the chemical composition data percentage values McCune et al. Subsequently, matched comparisons were made between the means of the treatments to determine differences Balzarini et al.

The biomass production of the aquatic plants grown in the aquaponics system are shown in Table 1. According to our results, L. The chemical compositions of the aquatic plants grown in the aquaponic system are shown in Table 2. According to the bromatological analyses, M. The highest values of NDF were recorded in S.

In addition, S. Regarding lignin concentrations, S. The highest ash values were recorded in L. The highest concentration of Ca was recorded in L. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to show the biomass production and chemical composition of M. The hydrophytes evaluated in the present study contained amounts of DM as those studied by Reyes et al.

The hydrophytes evaluated in the present study presented similar values of lignin as those reported in M. Lignin is a component of the cell wall, so higher concentrations of lignin in the forage decrease its digestibility and the availability of energy for animals, particularly those that obtain energy from the fermentation of fiber Hussain and Durrani Therefore, it is feasible to use L.

Aponte et al. Subsequently, these specimens were grown in a controlled environment with hydroponic nutrient solutions, analyses showed values of 4. According to our results, the L. Additionally, Corti and Schatteler reported that L. According to Wersal and Madsen , M. It should be noted that, in the present work, Lemna minor was the plant species with the highest amount of CP.

Leterme et al. According to Jampeetong et al. Nitrate is the form of nitrogen that plants absorb and use for growth. Plants assimilate most of the absorbed nitrate in organic nitrogen compounds; the nitrate is transformed into nitrite, which is trans formed into ammonium, and the assimilated nitro gen is then incorporated into amino acids, which are used in protein synthesis Sinha , which translates into plant growth.

As part of an aquaculture recirculation system, the water in aquaponics always contains available ammonium and nitrate, which could explain the CP values observed in the hydrophytes of this study range of NDF values of For ADF, the values obtained in the present study were slightly higher than the previously re ported value of According to Leterme et al.

The nutritional requirements of productive species vary with the physiological state, age, and sex; however, it is essential that these requirements are met by considering the quality of the ingredients produced and used in diets. In this sense, crude protein CP is the main nutrient in animal feed, since it fulfills various physiological functions in organisms Elizondo-Salazar The CP requirement should be addressed in diets by considering the digestive capacity of the target species.

The hydrophytes cultured in an aquaponic system evaluated in the present study met the crude protein percentages required to feed productive animals Table 3 , except for S. A fundamental component in the diet of herbivorous animals is the fiber present in forages. Excess fiber reduces the voluntary intake, digestibility, ruminal microbial protein synthesis, and energy in take of feed. For high-production animals that re quire significant energy inputs, fiber ranges must be established, because fiber is a factor that limits the energy content of rations.

For the fiber component, NDF requirements vary. According to the results of our study, it is possible to feed these species with the evaluated hydrophytes. It is important to note that the content of DAF and lignin present in L. On the other hand, the mineral contents in ingredients and diets are of vital importance in animal feed, since suitable concentrations of minerals are beneficial for production Table 3.

Considering our results, the ash contents of the hydrophytes meet the nutritional requirements to be incorporated in food for terrestrial species. Based on the Ca g d -1 requirements for dairy cows, pigs, poultry, sheep, goats, rabbits and tilapias, the hydrophytes do not provide enough Ca element, except for the tilapia, which, according to the literature, can survive with lower levels of Ca depending on the physico-chemical characteristics of the water Lianes However, based on the results, the aquatic plants could meet some of the requirements for P.

In relation to lipids EE , the composition of the aquaponic hydrophytes meets the minimum requirements of most species, so the use of these hydrophytes as an ingredient in an integral ration is feasible. Finally, according to our results, the aquatic plants evaluated comply with the amount of energy needed GE for productive species.

Our results show that hydrophytes cultivated in aquaponics systems can fulfill most of the nutritional quality requirements for productive animal species, so it is feasible to use them as main ingredients in whole animal rations, especially Myriophyllum aquaticum and Lemna minor, as alternatives for feeding animals.

This enables a type of non-conventional fodder production, although more research is needed, particularly regarding the consumption, attractiveness, palatability and digestibility of these hydrophytes grown in aquaponic systems for different animal species. Salvinia molesta, had no value as fodder, especially because of its concentration of lignin, which could affect the digestibility and voluntary consumption.

We also thank Dr. Date consulted: 21 October, Influence of varying the dietary level of calcium soap of palm fatty acids distillate with or without orange pulp supplementation.

Animal Feed Science and Technology AOAC Method Association of Official Analytical. Horwitz W ed. Editorial Brujas. Editorial CRC Press. United Kingdom. Neotropical Fauna Environment Crow GE Haloragaceae.

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica.



Important User Information: Remote access to EBSCO's databases is permitted to patrons of subscribing institutions accessing from remote locations for personal, non-commercial use. However, remote access to EBSCO's databases from non-subscribing institutions is not allowed if the purpose of the use is for commercial gain through cost reduction or avoidance for a non-subscribing institution. Source: Agroproductividad. Abstract: Aquaponics consists in the integration of two methods of cultivation: aquiculture, which involves breeding aquatic animals, and hydroponics, for the production of vegetable crops from nutritive solutions. In this system, both products are benefitted from principles of water recycling and use of nutrients, since the latter are excreted by aquatic animals and taken advantage of by the plants cultivated in the hydroponic systems. The additional use that plants make of aquatic wastes constitute an outstanding advantage of aquaponics, since this process reduces pollution and increases water efficiency, in addition to reducing the environmental impact. Aquaponics allows reducing production costs by making a more efficient use of resources; it can be established at different scales of production, it increases economic profitability and diversifies the origin of financial income.





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