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Bovine actinobacillosis is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous glossitis wooden tongue. The involvement of other tissues, generally the skin or lymph nodes, has been regarded as atypical or cutaneous. We describe herein 2 outbreaks of actinobacillosis affecting primarily the lymph nodes of the head and neck.

The disease affected 40 of lactating cows in a dairy herd, and 5 of two-y-old steers in a beef herd. Multiple or single, occasionally ulcerated nodules were observed in the region of the mandible, neck, and shoulder, including the parotid, submandibular, retropharyngeal, and prescapular lymph nodes. The histologic lesions were multifocal pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis, dermatitis, and cellulitis with Splendore-Hoeppli material.

One steer had an exophytic pyogranuloma in the gingiva and another died because of ruminal tympany secondary to oropharyngeal and esophageal obstruction by a pyogranulomatous mass. Actinobacillus lignieresii was isolated from the lesions and identified by amplification, sequencing, and analysis of the 16S ribosomal r DNA gene.

Seven of 8 cows recovered after treatment with sodium iodide. Lymphatic actinobacillosis is a frequent disease in Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Argentina. Later, lesions may extend to the subcutaneous tissue and the skin, causing ulceration. Affected cattle with draining pyogranulomas contaminate the environment, favoring disease transmission, and should be treated with sodium iodide or antibiotics and isolated from the herd in order to control the disease.

Keywords: Actinobacillus lignieresii; bovine; draining abscesses; lymphadenitis; pyogranulomas. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Search: Search. Advanced Clipboard. Create file Cancel. Email citation To:. Format: Summary Summary text Abstract Abstract text.

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Figures Figure 1. Cow with ulcerated, nodular…. Figure 1. Cow with ulcerated, nodular lesions in the lower jaw and neck. Excisional biopsy of the prescapular nodule from a cow. The lymph node in the center has a yellow cut surface with numerous 1—2-mm granules and is surrounded by dense fibrous connective tissue. Small, yellow, round, pyogranulomas with irregular surfaces are observed in the lymph node capsule arrow , suggesting that these lesions extend from the lymph nodes to the neighboring tissues.

Figure 2. Ulcerated exophytic nodular pyogranuloma…. Ulcerated exophytic nodular pyogranuloma in the gingiva of a steer. A nodular pyogranuloma on the dorsal portion of the oropharynx obstructs the lumen of the esophagus of a steer B. A pulmonary pyogranuloma in the steer with the lesion in the oropharynx. Figure 3. Necrotic center of…. Necrotic center of the prescapular lymph node of a dairy cow,….

Necrotic center of the prescapular lymph node of a dairy cow, with club-shaped clusters and Splendore—Hoeppli material surrounded by neutrophils and macrophages. The presence of pyogranulomas in the parenchyma and in the outer part of the capsule arrow of a prescapular lymph node suggests that lesions in the subcutaneous tissue are an extension from the lymph node lesion.

In addition to the Splendore—Hoeppli material in the pyogranuloma arrow in the gingiva of a beef steer, plant material is present within the lesion arrowhead , suggesting that this lesion originated from a contaminated wound.

Strong, finely granular immunoreactivity arrow in an extracellular location within the necrotic center of the pyogranuloma in the gingiva of a beef steer. Anti-BCG immunohistochemistry with hematoxylin counterstain. Figure 4. A phylogenetic tree constructed using sequences of different species type strains by the maximum likelihood method.

The Actinobacillus lignieresii sequences corresponding to isolates obtained in our work are marked with black dots. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Similar articles Atypical actinobacillosis affecting hind limbs and lungs in a single beef cattle herd. Relun A, et al. J Vet Intern Med. Epub Dec Multifocal suppurative granuloma caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii in the peritoneum of a beef steer.

Kasuya K, et al. J Vet Med Sci. Epub Oct Tageldin MH, et al. J Comp Pathol. PMID: An unusual epizootic of actinobacillosis in dairy heifers. Campbell SG, et al. J Am Vet Med Assoc. Actinobacillus species and their role in animal disease. Rycroft AN, et al. Vet J. PMID: Review. Show more similar articles See all similar articles. Cited by 1 article Atypical actinobacillosis affecting hind limbs and lungs in a single beef cattle herd.

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Overview of Actinobacillosis

Actinobacillosis refers to a group of diseases caused by gram-negative coccobacilli in the genus Actinobacillus. A pleuropneumoniae causes contagious pleuropneumonia in pigs see Pleuropneumonia in Pigs. Disease ranges from acute, severe fibrinous pleuropneumonia to subacute or chronic infection with pleuritis and pulmonary abscessation. Immune complexes formed as a result of host response may damage endothelial cells, resulting in vasculitis and thrombosis, with edema, necrosis, infarction, and hemorrhage.


Natural Lymphatic ("Atypical") Actinobacillosis in Cattle Caused by Actinobacillus Lignieresii

Actinobacillosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Actinobacillus. It is more commonly associated with animals than with humans. One of the most common forms seen by veterinarians is mouth actinobacillosis of cattle , due to Actinobacillus lignieresii. The most prominent symptom is the swelling of the tongue that protrudes from the mouth and is very hard at palpation "wooden tongue". Actinobacillus suis is an important disease of pigs of all ages and can lead to severe morbidity and sudden death.

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